Tajiks - a very ancient nation. Therefore, the culture of these people is really original and originated in an extreme antiquity. Tajiks managed to save traditions and customs of the people on which, in turn, and all cultural life of the nation is constructed.
The culture of Tajikistan "flows" in blood of each aboriginal. Tajiks always sought the knowledge of the world. And this experience was reflected in science, literature, art. Especially tremblingly Tajiks relate to the native language. In the millennia they carefully stored it, passing from generation to generation, like a relic, without distorting and without introducing anything foreign. The Arab conquerors practically destroyed original language of Tajiks - Dari. However, Tajiks managed to return its former magnificence. And on it true masterpieces of the Tajik classics began to sound again: fiction, songs, scientific treatises and other writing.
All this says that to Tajiks thirst for culture, art was always peculiar, to all beautiful, esthetic, thin and graceful. They were always the educated people singing of the vision of the world.
But the period of board of the state Samanid (874-1005 AD), especially time of government of Ismail Samani became the culmination of cultural development of the Tajik people. At this moment in magnificent color the science , literature, astronomy, mathematics, natural sciences, philosophy . Ismail Samani, being the most educated person, created in the state favorable conditions for cultural blossoming . This time is called still "The Golden Age of the Tajik civilization". At court of Ismail Samani the best scientists, writers, philosophers, poets, astronomers, painters, alchemists were brought together. Doors of the palace were always open for the guests bringing news of development of world culture.
Names of sintist. as ibni - Sino, Abu Raykhan Beruny, Al-Horezmy, Tiermiezy, Farabi, Rudaky, Firdousi, Saadi, Omar Khayyam are world renowned today. And they lived and created in the territory of the modern states of Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Tajiks treat very with respect that era when actually and the Tajik nation with common language, the territory and culture was created.
In 1999 the celebration of the 1100 anniversary of the state Samanidov became a grandiose holiday for all country. In days of celebration symposiums and the international conferences, not only in Tajikistan, but also in many cities of the world took place.
Dushanbe in many respects is also the cultural capital of the republic. Here various international festivals of types of arts are annually held: music, dance, cinema, folklore and many others.
Modern cultural life of Tajikistan can't be presented without the State opera and ballet theater of Ayni, Tajik drama theater of Lakhuti, the Russian drama theater, Academy of Sciences, the state universities, the historical museums, museums of Fine Arts, botanical gardens and other cultural institutions.
Tajikistan - Music and dances
Tajik national songs, as a rule, monothematic. They are lingering and abstruse, are cheerful and dynamic (on holidays). Musical instruments are various. Are most interesting: string - a Dutor, Rubab and Tanbur; stringed -gidzhak and a violin; wind instruments - Nai, Karnai, Surnai - Chiang; percussions - tablak (clay timpani), a doyra (tambourine), a kayrok (stone castanets).
The Tajik traditional dance is divided into several styles: Pamir, mountain‚ Bukhara‚ southern (Khatlonsky group of areas)‚ Gissar valley‚ Northern Tajikistan. Each of them differs in suits‚ the movements‚ manners characteristic of the population of these regions.
The Tajik dances were born before the early middle Ages. They were connected with life and accompanied all significant events‚ the birth‚ family festivals, etc. The Tajik traditional dance is divided into the following types: dance pantomime (most ancient)‚ is based on imitation animals and birds, ceremonial dance - rakskhoi marosimi , dance about the dead - poyamat (remained in the regions of Pamir). The movements in them sharp, dynamic, prompt, symbolize power and force (shamsherboz – dance with checkers‚ kordboz - dance with a knife‚ otashboz - with fire). Men's and women's dances with a musical instrument Tajiks also made the whole dramatized statements of dances. For example, aspakboz – dance with a horse‚ yshtyr ba kator – dance of a caravan of camels‚ kishtiboz – dance with the boat. These traditional dances include a pantomime‚ elements of a drama game and circus art. Traditional dances are integrally connected with spectacular representations.
The culture of Tajiks is graceful and quiet east outlook. At all times Tajiks were committed to creation and creativity, science and education, read independence and good-neighborhood existence, keeping pride and firmness as mountain tops.
The history of the Tajik people originates in depth of centuries, by the beginning of a human civilization. The most ancient finds found in the territory of modern Tajikistan to that confirmation. Opening of the first monuments of the Stone Age in 1956 was a peculiar sensation. In the found parking located at the height of 4200 meters above sea level in remote areas of highlands, more than 10 thousand products from a stone are dug out. They are presented by large tools like skrebet, scrapers, emarginated of tools which save Paleolithic traditions in processing. The age of open monuments of the Stone Age belongs generally to the VIII-V millennia B.C. Rock drawings - the petroglyphs which are beaten out on rocks or separate to processing Paleolithic traditions. The age of open monuments of the Stone Age belongs generally to the VIII-V millennia B.C. Rock drawings - the petroglyphs which are beaten out on rocks or separate stones of a figure of animals, people or the whole compositions represent certain, very specific area of archaeological researches in Tajikistan and more than 10 thousand drawings on rocks are so far opened. Mountains and valleys of Tajikistan, the people living in its territory are mentioned in ancient sources of antique authors Pliny and Ptolemaist. The Venetian traveler Marco Polo wrote about the travel to Pamir.
The most considerable of the saved architectural monuments of culture of Tajikistan are mausoleums of XI —XIV. Being in the village Sayat, to the village of Mazar-i-Sharif, monuments of the Gissar valley, the mosque in Istaravshan (XV). Existence of mosques, the certificate of the professed religion - Islam. On the eve of the Arab gains (at the beginning of the 7th century AD) the Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism and the Buddhism were the main religious cults. However, all cults called above were forced gradually out by Islam. After division of Islam into Sunni Islam and Shia Islam, the first direction was chosen as Tajiks.
At the beginning of the 9th century tendencies to national self-determination of the people began to be shown, there were first state educations of Tajiks, the largest of which was a State Somonidov with the capital in the city of Bukhara which founder was Ismoili Somoni from a dynasty Somonidov. The documentary evidences left by the travelers and scientists who visited the State Somonidov speak about the structure of public administration which outstripped the time.
Tajiks made the significant contribution to a spiritual treasury of a civilization, gave to the world of outstanding and remarkable scientists, philosophers, writers, poets and architects whose works became an integral part of the scientific and cultural baggage which is saved up by a world civilization. Examples of that of the lyric poet of the ancestor of the Tajik-Persian literature Abuabdullo Rudaki, the immortal national and epic poem "Shokhnoma" of Abdulkosim Firdavsi which incorporated legendary history of Persians and Tajiks, and "A canon of medical science" of Abuali Ibn Sino (Avicenna) the treatise which throughout many centuries served as the main guide to medicine of educational institutions of Europe. Scientists Al-Horazmi, Al-Forobi and Aburaykhon Beruni, such (according to Goethe) stars of the first magnitude in a sky of world poetry as Khayyam, Rumi, Saadi, Hafiz, Dzhami, masters of art creativity Borbad, Manya, Bekhzod were known far outside ancient Sogd, Khurasan and Movarounnakhr (Mesopotamia) - the main territory of modern Central Asia. The territory of Tajikistan since the most ancient times lay on the important historical ways of the Great silk way connecting the East and the West. She took the important place in international trade and cultural exchange, connecting since ancient times possession of Bactria - Takhoristan (Chagonian, Shumon, Akhorun, Kubodiyon, Vakhsh, Hutal, Rasht, Kumed, Darvoz, Vandzh, Pulling down Cubodiene, Vakhsh, Hutal, Rasht, Kumed, Darvoz, Vandzh, Rushan and Vakhon), Sogda, Istaravshan (Ustrushana) and Fergana with India, Afghanistan and China. The great Silk way became not only exchange of goods between the East and the West, but also the ideas, cultures and people. A certain cultural community, surprising alloy in which with different degree of intensity both "western", and "east" lines are shown resulted. On all Great Silk way the weapon made by the Sughd masters was famous, for example. Is known the fact that Sogd's governors in 718 presented to China a chain armor which local armorers imitated and extended in the Chinese army. The Sughd products from skin and a jewelry, silk fabrics and color salt had fine reputation. The "gold peaches", white and yellow cherries, sheep and graceful swift-footed racers striking foreigners went for export from Sogd.
Sadriddin Ayni became the successor of traditions and at the same time the founder of new Tajik literature, having covered various aspects of history, social, political, cultural and literary life of the people. Modern cultural life of Tajikistan can't be presented without the State opera and ballet theater of S. Ayni, the Tajik drama theater of A. Lakhuti, Academy of Sciences, the state universities, the historical museums, museums of Fine Arts, botanical gardens, and other cultural institutions. Tajiks — the people saving national traditions in life, clothes, food. Still Tajiks walk in national suits, and gathering for dostarkhany, eat national dishes. Tajik cuisine. Culinary art of the Tajik people was formed within many centuries. Despite some similarity of dishes of the Tajik ethnic cuisine to dishes of other Central Asian people, the Tajik cookery at the same time has the features, a peculiar technology of preparation of many foods.
Most characteristic of Tajik cuisine is use in a large number of meat products and use of fish, separate types of grain (buckwheat, oat, pearl-barley). The most widespread types of meat are mutton, a goat's meat, hens, chickens are less often eaten and ducks, geese almost aren't used at all. In certain areas the game is popular: partridges, rehashed.
Other feature of the Tajik ethnic cuisine is the increased consumption bean and rice. Considerable specific weight in a food allowance is occupied by products from flour: flat cakes, lamian, Feature of the Tajik ethnic cuisine is the semi-fluid consistence of second courses, a large number of meat sauce is "carried" also the high density of first courses.
Among national ware - a drinking bowl of various capacities, cash desk, round and oval dishes, faience teapots, trays, vases and other types of wooden and ceramic ware. Favorite drink of Tajiks - green tea. Any reception of guests, any friendly meeting and a conversation don't do without drinking bowl this hot drink. Even the lunch begins with tea. Drinking bowls with tea give on trays. Separately give a tray with sweets, fruit, flat cakes. Then in big drinking bowls serve soup, on big round dishes - second courses. Vegetables salads give usually on service plates to second courses. Tajiks eat sitting on a sofa, around low little tables. It should be noted respectful, careful attitude of Tajiks to food, especially to bread (flat cake); bread can't be thrown and dropped on the earth or on a floor, it isn't accepted to put it on dastarkhan (table) the lower party up, it is necessary to break it carefully, etc. Salads and cold appetizers from vegetables in Tajik cuisine are served as independent dishes, and also as a garnish for second courses – pilov , to sikhkabob (shish kebabs), kabob, etc. Cold appetizers are cooked, besides, from meat products, a game with addition of spices and greens.
Salad - Gissar, green onions pomegranate salad, salad - fresh vegetables to pilof, sour milk salad to pilaf, salad – to pilaf, salad – meat boiled cold. In the Tajik national cuisine soups rank high. They are trained mainly on meat-and-bone broth. The most popular soups - shurbo, or mastova, Criminal Investigation Department, and also Criminal Investigation Department with mutton, kaurma-shurbo, khom-shurbo, shalgam-shurbo.
Other feature of the Tajik first courses is plentiful filling with their greens, spices, an onion, fresh tomatoes, sour milk. In the Tajik national cuisine the most widespread meat dishes are various kabob, sikhkabob (shish kebabs) into the list of whom besides meat enter spices, vegetables, greens, fats.
In the Tajik cooker many meat products are fried over coals in the stove Tandyr . Thanks to such thermal treatment of a dish develop a specific taste and aroma. Before frying many types of meat are exposed to pickling during 2- 4 h therefore meat fabric is softened, and dishes turn out more juicy. For pickling vinegar, lemon juice, juice of sour pomegranates, etc. are used.
Besides, in the Tajik national cuisine dishes in sauce - the hot, natural meat fried in a large amount of fat are widespread.
As a rule, to meat dishes serve various vegetable salads, fried or boiled potatoes. Favorite drink of Tajiks is tea. Green tea is used as in hot, and cold. In cool season have black tea. From other drinks fruit broths, juice, water-ices have wide circulation.